Given the trend of increasing maternal age and associated adverse reproductive outcomes in the US, this study aimed to assess whether this association is due to an independent aging or confounded by sociodemographic, biomedical, or behavioral determinants in a predominantly Black US population. 

In this high-risk minority population, findings demonstrated that the association between increasing maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes was due to an independent aging effect and the presence of confounding by sociodemographic, biomedical, and behavioral factors. Some modifiable risk factors to counteract aging effect, include optimizing BMI and consistent intake of multivitamin supplement. A fundamental change in how care is provided to women, particularly low income Black women, is needed with emphasis on the protective role of optimal nutritional status.


  1. Al Khalaf SY, O'Reilly ÉJ, McCarthy FP, Kublickas M, Kublickiene K, Khashan AS. Pregnancy outcomes in women with chronic kidney disease and chronic hypertension: a National cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Sep;225(3):298.e1-298.e20. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2021.03.045. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

  2. Vik ES, Aasheim V, Nilsen RM, Small R, Moster D, Schytt E. Paternal country of origin and adverse neonatal outcomes in births to foreign-born women in Norway: A population-based cohort study. PLoS Med. 2020 Nov 4;17(11):e1003395. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003395. eCollection 2020 Nov.

  3. Fitzpatrick KE, Kurinczuk JJ, Bhattacharya S, Quigley MA. Planned mode of delivery after previous cesarean section and short-term maternal and perinatal outcomes: A population-based record linkage cohort study in Scotland. PLoS Med. 2019 Sep 24;16(9):e1002913. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002913. eCollection 2019 Sep.


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