The objective was to investigate racial and ethnic differences in unexpected, term newborn morbidity and the influence of hospital quality on disparities. Findings suggest that Black and Hispanic women were more likely to deliver in hospitals with high complication rates than were white or Asian American women. Findings implicate hospital quality in contributing to preventable newborn health disparities among low-risk, term births. Quality improvement targeting routine obstetric and neonatal care is critical for equity in perinatal outcomes.


  1. Mujahid MS, Kan P, Leonard SA, Hailu EM, Wall-Wieler E, Abrams B, Main E, Profit J, Carmichael SL. Birth hospital and racial and ethnic differences in severe maternal morbidity in the state of California. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Feb;224(2):219.e1-219.e15. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.08.017. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

  2. Howell EA, Janevic T, Hebert PL, Egorova NN, Balbierz A, Zeitlin J. Differences in Morbidity and Mortality Rates in Black, White, and Hispanic Very Preterm Infants Among New York City Hospitals. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Mar 1;172(3):269-277. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.4402.

  3. Howell EA, Egorova NN, Balbierz A, Zeitlin J, Hebert PL. Site of delivery contribution to black-white severe maternal morbidity disparity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Aug;215(2):143-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2016.05.007. Epub 2016 May 12.


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