The objective of this study is to describe infant mortality among opioid-exposed infants and identify how mortality risk differs in opioid-exposed infants with and without a diagnosis of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) compared with infants without opioid exposure. In this study, opioid-exposed infants appeared to be at increased risk of mortality, and the treatments and supports provided to those diagnosed with NOWS may be protective. Interventions to support opioid-exposed maternal-infant dyads are warranted, regardless of the perceived severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal.


  1. Shrestha S, Roberts MH, Maxwell JR, Leeman LM, Bakhireva LN. Post-discharge healthcare utilization in infants with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2021 Jul-Aug;86:106975. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2021 Mar 23. PMID: 33766722

  2. Pahl A, Young L, Buus-Frank ME, Marcellus L, Soll R. Non-pharmacological care for opioid withdrawal in newborns. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Dec 21;12(12):CD013217. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013217.pub2.
    PMID: 33348423

  3. Bakhireva LN, Holbrook BD, Shrestha S, Leyva Y, Ashley M, Cano S, Lowe J, Stephen JM, Leeman L. Association between prenatal opioid exposure, neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, and neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes at 5-8 months of age. Early Hum Dev. 2019 Jan;128:69-76. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.10.010. Epub 2018 Dec 13. PMID: 30554024


Please Sign in (or Register) to view further.