The objective of this study was to compare neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or special care nursery admission for deliveries with water immersion compared with deliveries in the matched control group without water immersion. Secondary outcomes included adverse neonatal diagnoses, maternal infections, and perineal lacerations. Findings suggest that hospital-based deliveries with second-stage water immersion had lower risk of NICU or special care nursery admission and perineal lacerations than matched deliveries in the control group without water immersion.



  1. Cluett ER, Burns E, Cuthbert A. Immersion in water during labour and birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 May 16;5(5):CD000111. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000111.pub4

  2. Cordioli E. Immersion in water in labour and birth. Sao Paulo Med J. 2013;131(5):364. doi: 10.1590/1516-3180.20131315T2.

  3. Lim KM, Tong PS, Chong YS. A comparative study between the pioneer cohort of waterbirths and conventional vaginal deliveries in an obstetrician-led unit in Singapore. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Jun;55(3):363-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2016.04.012.


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