Smoking in pregnancy is known to be associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there is a high prevalence of smoking among pregnant women in many countries, and it remains a major public health concern. The authors have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide contemporary estimates of the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth. The review findings confirm a dose-response effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on risk of stillbirth. To minimise the risk of stillbirth, reducing current smoking prevalence in pregnancy should continue to be a key public health high priority.


  1. Baba, S., Wikström, A. K., Stephansson, O., & Cnattingius, S. (2014). Influence of snuff and smoking habits in early pregnancy on risks for stillbirth and early neonatal mortality. nicotine & tobacco research, 16(1), 78-83.

  2. Varner, M. W., Silver, R. M., Hogue, C. J. R., Willinger, M., Parker, C. B., Thorsten, V. R., ... & Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health. (2014). Association between stillbirth and illicit drug use and smoking during pregnancy. Obstetrics and gynecology, 123(1), 113.
  3. Hyland, A., Piazza, K. M., Hovey, K. M., Ockene, J. K., Andrews, C. A., Rivard, C., & Wactawski-Wende, J. (2014). Associations of lifetime active and passive smoking with spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy: a cross-sectional analysis of historical data from the Women's Health Initiative. Tobacco control, tobaccocontrol-2013.


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