This retrospective cohort study used linked birth certificate and hospital discharge data for 8609 of the 100,691 self-identifying non-Hispanic Black women with gestational diabetes (GDM) who had a singleton live birth between 20 and 44 weeks gestation in California in 2013-2017. Findings suggest that foreign-born status remained protective of preterm birth (PTB), irrespective of severity and subtype. Preeclampsia, PTB, and GDM share pathophysiologic mechanisms suggesting a need to better understand differences in perinatal stress, chronic disease, and vascular dysfunction based on nativity in future epidemiologic studies and health services research.


  1. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 190. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2018;131:349–364.

  2. Correa A, Bardenheier B, Elixhauser A, Geiss LS, Gregg E. Trends in prevalence of diabetes among delivery hospitalizations, United States, 1993-2009. Matern Child Health J. 2015;19:635–642. doi: 10.1007/s10995-014-1553-5.

  3. Getahun D, Nath C, Ananth CV, Chavez MR, Smulian JC. Gestational diabetes in the United States: temporal trends 1989 through 2004. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198(5):525.e1–525.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2007.11.017


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