Black ethnic groups have a higher breast cancer mortality than Whites. American studies have identified variations in tumour biology and unequal health-care access as causative factors. This study compared tumour pathology, treatment and outcomes in three ethnic groups in young breast cancer patients treated in the United Kingdom and concluded that despite equal access to health care, young Black women in the United Kingdom have a significantly poorer outcome than White patients. Black ethnicity is an independent risk factor for reduced DRFS particularly in ER-positive patients.

28th October 2013 • comment

Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer. Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts, the authors estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates.

31st July 2013 • comment

This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and excess of vitamin A intake as an osteoporosis risk factor in healthy postmenopausal women.

22nd March 2013 • comment

Vitamin K has been widely promoted as a supplement for decreasing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but the long-term benefits and potential harms are unknown. This study was conducted to determine whether daily high-dose vitamin K1 supplementation safely reduces bone loss, bone turnover, and fractures.

22nd March 2013 • comment